Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Alstom wins order to build an 800 MW gas-fired combined cycle cogeneration plant for Sembcorp in Singapore

22/02/2011

Alstom, a global leader in the turnkey supply of power plants, has been selected by Sembcorp to build a new 800 MW gas-fired combined cycle cogeneration plant on Singapore's Jurong Island.

The plant's construction will be carried out in two phases of 400 MW each. The EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) for both phases is worth approximately €500 million and includes for each phase the supply of the entire unit and all associated equipment, including a GT26 gas turbine, steam turbine, turbo generator, heat recovery steam generator and ALSPA Series 6 integrated control system.

The order for phase one (400 MW), signed today and worth approximately €300 million, includes a 18-year maintenance contract.

With this new plant, Sembcorp will roughly double its generation capacity in Singapore over 1,600 MW, strengthening its position in Singapore's power market. As well as providing electricity, the new power plant will supply steam to the petrochemical and chemical manufacturing industries located in the Jurong Island area. Alstom has a strong relationship with Sembcorp and built the company's existing Sembcorp Cogen gas-fired cogeneration plant which was Singapore's first cogeneration plant and began commercial operation in 2001.

"This new order for Sembcorp is a demonstration of the performance, reliability and availability of our equipment," said Philippe Joubert, President of Alstom Power. "It is a new milestone that underlines Alstom's competitiveness for combined cycle power plants in the region, and our ability to provide and service turnkey power plants".

Alstom's combined cycle technology, based on its GT26 gas turbine, is among the most efficient and reliable technologies currently available. Due to its high flexibility and efficiency on base load operation and when operating in part load, the GT26 is perfectly adapted to Singapore's competitive electricity market, enabling Alstom's clients to customise their operations according to demand and thus maximise their profits.

Singapore has an installed electricity generation capacity of 11 GW, with demand reaching 6.5 GW during peak periods. The country maintains a healthy reserve capacity to ensure the reliability of its electricity grid. Many of Singapore's power producers are adding new capacity after being incentivized to purchase gas from the new liquid natural gas (LNG) terminal coming onstream in 2013.

Thursday, February 17, 2011

全球石油化工行业发展呈现五大特征

中国石油董事会秘书李怀奇日前表示,从近年来的发展趋势看,世界石油石化行业的发展呈现以下特征:  

一是石油石化行业的全球化趋势日益明显。世界石油石化行业的经营主体主要包括:国际大型石油公司、国家石油公司、独立石油公司等。国际大型石油公司是世界石油行业全球化的最主要力量。国家石油公司为了分享国际资源和市场,在积极加快本国石油工业发展的同时加快海外业务拓展,逐步实现从纯粹的国家石油公司向市场化的跨国公司转型,国家石油公司正在成为石油石化行业国际化的新兴力量。随着世界经济一体化进程的加快,世界石油石化行业的全球化趋势将越来越明显。  

二是技术进步是世界石油石化行业发展的重要推动力。近年来,随着地球物理科学和信息技术的不断进步,将使得石油勘探开发向更多的新领域拓展,采收率不断提高,尤其是使非常规石油投入开发的进程明显加快。炼油化工领域也将加快开发生产工序少、工艺流程短、生产效率高、原料利用率高、能源消耗少、环保的技术和工艺,顺应市场对轻质油品的需求增长加快和清洁燃料生产需求提高的趋势,炼油装置结构进一步调整,深加工能力及装置适应能力提高。  

三是行业集中程度不断提高。随着技术进步和行业竞争的不断加剧,世界石油石化行业的集中程度不断提高。世界石油行业在1998年后出现了以巨型石油公司整体合并为主要特点的兼并、重组和联合浪潮,油气资源集中度不断提高。炼油和石化行业则表现出资金和技术集中度不断提高的特点,企业规模和装置规模不断扩大,炼厂和化工厂的规模与装置规模进一步增大,炼化一体化、基地建设已成大势。 

四是世界天然气发展将成为石油行业发展的亮点,非常规油气在全球石油产能增长中的地位日益重要。迄今为止,世界天然气利用主要集中在发电、工业和民用三大领域。随着对环保需求的增加和科学技术的发展与突破,天然气消费量的扩张速度明显快于石油,天然气将成为世界石油行业发展的新亮点。由于老油田开发程度已处于较高水平,且新发现常规油气资源的难度日益加大,随着未来非常规油气开发的技术逐步成熟,油砂、重油等非常规油气在全球石油产能增长中的地位日益重要。  

五是世界石化产业向中东和亚太转移。近年来,由于市场、贸易、油价等影响,特别是欧美严格的环保要求,迫使西方发达国家紧缩本国石化生产,而转向在资源国家或拥有广大市场的发展中国家投资建厂和合资办厂。世界乙烯生产将出现北美、亚太、西欧、中东四分天下的局面,其中亚太地区将超过北美成为世界最大乙烯产区。中东地区由于拥有丰富且廉价的石油和天然气资源,吸引了大量资本投入石化项目的建设。

世界石化工业形成美亚欧三足鼎立格局,亚太地位进一步提升
随着经济全球化进程的加快和信息革命、新技术革命的深入发展,世界石化工业已形成美亚欧三足鼎立之势。目前亚太地区已拥有全球24%的炼油能力、26%的乙烯生产能力。该地区五大合成树脂、合成纤维和合成橡胶的产量已经超过北美洲居世界第一位。在新世纪,亚太将是石化产能增加最快的地区,世界石化工业半数以上的新投资将用于该地区。随着石化工业的发展,亚太在世界石化工业格局中的地位将进一步提升。
以中国为代表的发展中国家的石化工业正在进一步崛起在当今世界十大产油国中,发展中国家有8个,沙特阿拉伯居第一位;在世界十大炼油国中,发展中国家3个,中国、韩国和印度分列第四、五和八位;在世界十大乙烯生产国中,沙特阿拉伯、中国和韩国分列第三、六和七位。发展中国家的炼油能力约占世界总能力的42%,乙烯能力约占世界总能力的1/3
目前中国炼油能力已占亚洲总能力的22.4%,占全球的5.5%;乙烯能力占亚洲总能力的17%,占全球的4.6%。中国是世界最大的聚烯烃消费国,聚烯烃购买量超过全球聚烯烃贸易总量的30%;中国是世界第一大合成纤维生产国和消费国,产量和需求量分别约占世界的1/41/3;中国是世界第四大合成橡胶生产国和第二大消费国。
另外,中东产油国以廉价资源优势为后盾,石化工业正在迅速上升之中,今后将在世界大宗石化产品市场中占据重要地位。据CMAI预测,中东乙烯生产能力已从1997年的525.9万吨/年增至2002年的967.5万吨/年,在近翻一番的基础上,2008年将较2002年再翻一番以上,达到2005万吨/年。中东的大石化企业在政府的支持下,也进一步加快了对外扩张和跨国经营的步伐。
今后,随着中东和亚洲发展中国家石化工业的进一步发展,发展中国家的石化工业将成为世界石化工业的生力军,同时,中国在亚洲和世界石化工业及石化市场中的地位和作用也将进一步提升。
世界石化产业的集中度越来越高
半个世纪以来,世界石油化工业经历了三次大的产业结构调整,目前正在深入进行中的第三次产业结构调整使世界石化工业的集中度进一步提高,使其呈现出大型化、专业化、基地化、炼化一体化的趋势。
世界炼厂总数目近年来持续减少,但集中度在不断提高。2002年全球有722家炼厂,炼油能力在2000万吨/年以上的有17个,约占全球总炼油能力的10.9%。世界炼厂的平均规模已从1995年的523.7万吨/年提升至2002年的567万吨/年。2002年,世界最大25家炼油公司占世界总能力的55.1%   
2002
年全球最大10座乙烯厂的能力占全球乙烯总能力的17%以上。最大10家乙烯生产商占全球乙烯总能力的份额为50%HDPELDPE15大生产商的生产能力占全球总能力的比例则分别高达59%56%   
新一轮兼并联合改变了全球石油石化业界的竞争格局
美欧大石油石化公司在世纪之交进行的几次重要兼并联合和内部重组,使得全球石油石化业界保持了半个多世纪的实力对比格局发生了重大变化。
石油界改变了过去埃克森和英荷壳牌集团遥遥领先,BP、美孚、雪佛龙、德士古等公司跟随其后的格局,形成了埃克森美孚、壳牌和BP三个超大规模的一体化石油公司以及道达尔菲纳埃尔夫、雪佛龙德士古和大陆菲利普斯三个大型一体化石油公司引领世界石化业界的新格局。  
化工界经过近几年来的重组整合和业务转轨,改变了过去由美国杜邦、陶氏化学和德国巴斯夫、赫司特和拜耳五大综合化工公司引领的局面,形成了巴斯夫、陶氏化学、拜耳和杜邦为主导的专业化、特色化公司高度集中的新局面。   
这些跨国公司对全球资源、技术和市场的控制力进一步增强,给新世纪世界石化产业的发展和竞争带来了深远的影响。

Huntsman Announces Capacity Expansion at Singapore Polyetheramines Plant

THE WOODLANDS, Texas, Feb. 16, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- The Performance Products division of Huntsman Corporation (NYSE: HUN) today announced that it is going ahead with the engineering design for a 40,000-ton capacity expansion program at its world-scale polyetheramine facility in Singapore.

Huntsman plans to invest more than $70 million at its Jurong Island plant in a move that will more than double the site's manufacturing capabilities, help satisfy increasing global demand for polyetheramines and strengthen the company's leadership position in this technology. In the last five years, Huntsman – the world's leading polyetheramine producer – has seen interest in its JEFFAMINE® amines accelerate dramatically.

Polyetheramines are typically employed in epoxy coatings or in additives that enhance the performance of fuels, concrete and pesticides. With new amine applications emerging all the time, Huntsman is forecasting significant mid-term growth in the sector.

Stu Monteith President of Huntsman's Performance Products division said: "When our Jurong site first opened in 2007 it was designed to produce 16,000 tons of polyetheramines per annum. However, in the last few years demand has begun to outstrip production capabilities across our three main production sites in Singapore; Conroe, Texas; and Llanelli in Wales. Adding this extra 40,000 tons of capacity in Asia is in line with our regional growth projections for the next decade and will optimize our global manufacturing footprint for specialty amines, enabling us to flex and respond more quickly to customer requirements."

Although Huntsman already has a significant position in the market, it expects demand for its JEFFAMINE® amines range to intensify across all regions over the next decade, particularly in Asia-Pacific – where volume is set to grow by at least 10% per year.

About Huntsman:

Huntsman is a global manufacturer and marketer of differentiated chemicals. Its operating companies manufacture products for a variety of global industries, including chemicals, plastics, automotive, aviation, textiles, footwear, paints and coatings, construction, technology, agriculture, health care, detergent, personal care, furniture, appliances and packaging. Originally known for pioneering innovations in packaging and, later, for rapid and integrated growth in petrochemicals, Huntsman today has 11,000 employees and operates from multiple locations worldwide. The Company had 2009 revenues of approximately $8 billion. For more information about Huntsman, please visit the company's website at www.huntsman.com.

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Tuas Power secures coal supplies

It has started to tie up deals with Indonesia producers
Ronnie Lim Business Times 16 Feb 11;

(SINGAPORE) China Huaneng-owned Tuas Power (TP) - which is building Singapore's first clean coal/ biomass-firing multi-utilities plant - has started to tie up long-term coal supply deals with producers in Indonesia.

TP's president and CEO Lim Kong Puay told BT: 'We are getting our coal from several coal producers there to ensure security of supplies.'

One is Jakarta-listed PT Bayan Resources which has just signed an agreement with TP's $2 billion Tembusu Multi-Utilities Complex (TMUC) to supply it with 13.36 million tonnes of environment-friendly coal for 15 years, starting in 2012.

The low-sulphur, low- ash sub-bituminous coal will be transported via covered, self-propelled barges from Bayan's Kalimantan coal mine to Jurong Island, Mr Lim said. TP expects to seal a deal with a barge operator for this shortly, he added.

And just like the operations at Huaneng's clean coal-firing power plants in China, the Indonesian barges will unload the coal at TMUC's Tembusu jetty, from where it will be transported via a covered conveyor system to covered storage silos before use by the Tembusu plant.

Mr Lim said that apart from its contract with PT Bayan Resources, TP has also sealed a second long- term supply deal with South Korea's Samtan Co Ltd, which operates a coal mine in East Kalimantan, but he declined to provide more details.

The Indonesian coal supplies will arrive in time for the TMUC facility 'whose first phase construction is on schedule, with the first steam unit there starting up in mid-2012', he said.

TP first broke ground for TMUC in November 2009 and started construction proper early last year.

When fully operational, the TMUC plant - whose fuel mix comprises 80 per cent clean coal and 20 per cent tropical biomass, mainly palm kernel - will produce about 1,000 tonnes of steam per hour and 160 megawatts (MW) of electricity.

It will also provide chilled water and treat industrial waste for petrochemical customers there.

TP is currently also negotiating with an unnamed party for the palm kernel, Mr Lim said.

Apart from the TMUC facility, China Huaneng - which has already invested $6 billion on TP - is spending a further $470 million to 'repower' the first of two older oil-fired steam plants at its 2,670MW Tuas power station into more efficient gas-firing combined cycle plants (CCPs).

This will make it TP's fifth CCP when the repowering is completed in 2014, dovetailing with coming liquified natural gas (LNG) supplies here.

PT Bayan Resources is engaged mainly in open cut mining for coal of various grades from mines located primarily in East and South Kalimantan.

The integrated producer produces coal ranging from semi-soft coking coal (used to make steel) to the environment-friendly, low-sulphur sub-bituminous coal (used by power plants).

Samtan is a leading South Korean energy company with primary interests in coal mining, production, and supply.

Samtan currently operates a coal mine in East Kalimantan through its 49 per cent owned subsidiary Kideco, the third-largest coal mining company in Indonesia.

Friday, February 11, 2011

Electric car firm pulls plug on Singapore

Tesla exits after failing to secure 'green' tax incentives, making its cars unviable here
Christopher Tan Straits Times 12 Feb 11;

AMERICAN electric car company Tesla Motors is pulling the plug on plans to market its zippy, battery-powered sports cars to the wealthy and environmentally hip here - just six months after setting up an office at Suntec to do just that.

It will pack up next week, without having sold a single car.

The Straits Times understands that the company is pulling out because it failed to secure 'green' tax incentives for its cars, making them unviable.

The two-seater Tesla Roadster, which runs entirely on lithium-ion batteries that can be charged from a normal household socket, would cost $400,000 to $500,000 without the incentives.

That is in the ballpark of cars like the Porsche 911 and Maserati Granturismo.

But had the tax break been granted, the car would have cost around $250,000 or less.

The Economic Development Board, which is in charge of approving the tax break, said Tesla had not met 'technical requirements'.

A Tesla insider said the company had garnered about a dozen bookings, most on condition that the tax break be granted. A few were willing to buy the car without the tax break, but Tesla said the numbers were too small to justify its presence here.

One of the willing was businessman Melvin Tan, 38, who said: 'Too bad. I really quite liked the car.'

Tesla Motors Asia-Pacific director Kevin Yu told The Straits Times: 'Unfortunately, Singapore has not turned out to be the market we hoped it would be.

'Given the Roadster's limited production run and the enthusiastic support from both customers and governments for the vehicle in other markets, Tesla has decided to focus our limited resources elsewhere.'

He cited some examples of 'enthusiastic support'. They include Japan, which is granting 2.61million yen (S$40,000) in cash rebate for each Tesla buyer; Hong Kong and Malaysia, where electric vehicles are tax exempt; and various cities in Europe and America, which have similar tax breaks of varying amounts.

Mr Yu added: 'We do hope that at some point in the future conditions will be right for re-entry...we have no plans at this point.'

Meanwhile, Singapore's plan to test-bed a fleet of electric cars is still stuck in the slow lane.

Public infrastructure for charging the cars is expected to be up and running only in the middle of the year, though the first batch of cars has arrived.

Cycle & Carriage has brought in a fleet of 10 Mitsubishi iMiEV hatchbacks - the first of 25 committed here for the test-bed. The cars, which are set to be granted tax breaks, will sit in a warehousing area for the next half-year or so.

Nissan and Renault said they hope to bring in electric models later this year, but are awaiting the green light regarding the tax rebate.

The effort to bring in a trial fleet of electric cars - to test their durability in a hot, humid environment - started several years ago.

Thursday, February 10, 2011

Singapore set to build its first floating oil storage

Project at Pulau Sebarok expected to start in second half
Ronnie Lim
Business Times 11 Feb 11;

(SINGAPORE) Singapore is set to launch its first floating oil storage project in the second half of this year.

Apparently dubbed 'megafloat', the project is Singapore's latest answer to land-challenged Jurong Island, which does not allow for any more surface-based oil storage to be built.

Final-stage engineering for the floating terminal at Pulau Sebarok - likely to be used to store oil products and be operated by Royal Vopak - has just started, with tenders for its construction expected around June.

BT understands that this follows a tender award last month by JTC Corporation to the Jurong Consultants/British Maritime Technology Group (BMT) consortium for front-end engineering design (FEED) for the very large floating structure (VLFS).

The scarcity of land for oil storage in Jurong Island is a long-standing one, and sites there are instead earmarked for high value-add oil and chemicals process plants.

That is why JTC also recently embarked on building the $890 million first phase of Jurong Rock Cavern, comprising 1.47 million cu m of capacity, to store oil underground.

The zero availability of land for additional oil storage has led to many oil traders and terminal operators here resorting to either building or leasing space at new terminals in neighbouring Johor instead.

Vopak, already one of the biggest terminal operators in Singapore with over 2.59 million cubic metres of storage capacity, is for instance joining hands with Malaysia's Dialog to build a 5 million cu m terminal, costing RM5 billion (S$2.1 billion), in Pengerang this April.

While operatorship has apparently not been awarded yet, Vopak is the logical choice to run the 'megafloat' at Pulau Sebarok, as the VLFS site is just behind the Dutch terminal operator's existing surface tankfarm. It is one of four oil and chemical tankfarms which Vopak operates on Jurong Island, the others being at the Banyan, Penjuru and Sakra sectors.

The Jurong Consultants-BMT Group consortium is understood to be carrying out FEED for the 'megafloat' with flexibility for it to be built either from concrete or steel.

Earlier JTC studies showed that to be economical, megafloat's minimum storage capacity should be 300,000 cu m, or equal to that of a very large crude carrier. It would comprise two rectangular modules, each with 150,000 cu m of storage. Each module was earlier reported to measure 180 metres by 80 m by 15 m, although the final dimensions would eventually depend on the material used, sources said.

'Essentially, it will comprise individual floating boxes, as oil is lighter than water,' one source explained.

The consultants are expected to complete their FEED by Q1, and then prepare and call the EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) tender by mid-year. The earlier cost estimate for building the megafloat was at least $180 million, although this will ultimately depend on the material used.

On the lead time needed to build the project, sources said that if the megafloat were to be made of steel, it would depend on the availability of local shipyards, while a concrete structure would likely have to be constructed in neighbouring countries.

JTC studies on the megafloat started back in 2007, with phase one covering a preliminary conceptual design of an attached-to-land VLFS.

This then progressed to phase two - covering areas like environmental impact, marine soil investigation and sea current monitoring - which was completed last year.

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

Jurong Island rides right chemistry

Investments in chemical plants pour in as new petrochemical crackers provide the feedstock
Ronnie Lim
Business Times 10 Feb 11;

(SINGAPORE) Chemical investments are streaming into Jurong Island as feedstock flows from its new petrochemical crackers. The chemicals that are churned out will go into producing a variety of everyday products, ranging from plastics, DVDs, plywood and paints to textiles.

Taiwan's Chang Chun Group is setting up three new plants here while Japan's Denka will open one more. Chang Chun expects to employ about 500 personnel for its Singapore operations, which will generate annual revenue of about S$1.5 billion.

A hint of the Taiwan group's investment was first dropped by Finance Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam at a recent conference when he cited Dairen Chemicals as one of the new incoming chemical investors on Jurong, together with others like Lanxess and Asahi Kasei.

Dairen Chemicals is, in fact, a joint venture between Chang Chun and another Taiwanese group, Nan Pao Resins Chemical Company, industry sources said.

Chang Chun's three plants will cost a total of S$500 million and are expected to be up and running by the first quarter of 2013. One possible trigger for the investment is Shell's new US$3 billion petrochemical complex, from which the Taiwan group will source ethylene and propylene to help it meet the strong global demand for chemicals.

One of its new units is a 150,000 tonnes per year (tpa) allyl alcohol plant. Allyl alcohol is a starting material for a variety of speciality monomers and polymers (plastics).

Chang Chun is also setting up a 540,000 tpa cumene plant to make phenols that go into producing plywood, DVDs and CDs.

Its third plant will churn out 350,000 tpa of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) which is used in paints, adhesives and textiles.

Meanwhile, Japan's Denka is investing S$46.5 million in its second plant here. The Japanese company first came to Singapore in the early 1980s when it started producing acetylene black here. That plant drew feedstocks from the first petrochemical complex here, Petrochemical Corporation of Singapore.

Its second investment here, at the Seraya sector on Jurong Island, will produce 20,000 tpa of chemicals that can go into producing automotive interior parts. This Denka IP plant is expected to use styrene feedstocks from the new Shell petrochemical complex.

The availability of feedstocks on Jurong Island was clearly a draw for Denka to invest here, given that its 16,000 tpa Chiba plant, near Tokyo, is already operating at full capacity to cater to markets like China, India and the Middle East.

To meet further market demand, and given 'the favourable business climate in Singapore', Denka said it decided to build the high-value styrene-based plant here. It has already secured land for the new plant which is targeted to start up in April 2012.

The Chang Chun and Denka investments are the latest in a stream of chemicals investments being made here.

The Economic Development Board said last month that 'the strong FAI (fixed asset investments) forecast for 2011 (of S$12-14 billion) is in part indicative of the interest in speciality chemicals projects that have been enabled by the two recent petrochemical crackers'.

Shell's new petrochemical complex started up early last year, while Exxon's US$5-6 billion second petrochemical complex is expected to start up later this year, or early next year.

The petrochemical complexes, including PCS, have drawn in a recent wave of Japanese synthetic rubber investors like Zeon Chemicals, Sumitomo Chemicals and Asahi Kasei, after Germany's Lanxess' S$712 million buytl rubber facility.

Shell is also ramping up production of high-purity ethylene oxide (HPEO) to fuel new investors making products like detergent and offshore drilling chemicals at a new 'HPEO corridor' there.

Tuesday, February 8, 2011

Sunday, February 6, 2011

New Tuas desalination plant to have 'slight negative impact' on marine life

Leong Wee Keat Today Online 7 Feb 11;

SINGAPORE - The construction of the second desalination plant at Tuas - which, when complete, would provide another viable source of water supply for Singapore - may have "a slight negative impact" on marine life, in particular, fish.

This, according to an environmental impact assessment study that was commissioned by national water agency PUB. The study was conducted by DHI Water and Environment over six months and its128-page report has been accepted by the PUB.

Among its findings: Habitat loss is also expected for plants and animals living at the bottom of the sea measuring more than 0.5mm in length - known as microbenthics - but they are predicted to recover in the short term.

Regarding water quality, the study noted that iron oxides, total suspended solids and boron at the plant's offshore diffuser as well as within a 10m mixing zone will exceed the National Environment Agency (NEA) Trade Effluent Discharge Standards.

A waiver has been agreed in principle with the NEA to permit the exceeding of these standards within the 10m mixing zone.

Desalination, the process of removing salt and other minerals from water to make it drinkable, is set to grow by 10 times and meet 30 per-cent of the water demand by 2060.

The PUB expects the Tuas Desalination Plant to add another 70 million gallons (318,500 cubic metres) of desalinated water a day to the nation's water supply when it is completed by 2013.

The tender to design, build, own and operate the plant will be awarded by March.

The Tuas desalination plant will be constructed within a 14-hectare plot of land at Tuas View, adjacent to the western straits of Johor and lies 850m offshore from the Singapore-Malaysia International Boundary.

The surrounding Singapore coastline comprises various industrial facilities, Tuas jetty and Raffles Marina.

However, there are no nature reserves within 5km of the proposed plant.

Construction is expected to last for a year and the presence of construction vessels may temporarily affect recreational boats from Raffles Marine plying the Tuas shoreline, said the report, which also expects the plant operator to complete a formal safety assessment to manage any risk of collisions during works.

However, the DHI study predicts no navigation and cross-border impact.

Asked if it had concerns over the plant's discharge, which could be swept by tides to other coastal areas, the PUB told MediaCorp that the plant has to meet the environmental requirement of diluting the outfall discharge stream within 10m of its diffuser.

Said a PUB spokesperson: "As such, after the 10m mixing zone, seawater quality will be back to ambient levels and no environmental impact is expected."

For now, DHI felt that no further mitigation measures are required but recommended some measures the plant should take under its environment management plan. These include regular monitoring of ambient seawater quality, sediment and discharge during the construction and operations.